Have you ever held a question in mind for so long that it becomes part of how you think?Maybe even part of who you are as a person?
Well I've had a question in my mind for many, many years and that is: how can you speed up learning? Now, this is an interesting question because if you speed up learning you can spend less time at school. And if you learn really fast, you probably wouldn't have to go to school at all.
Now, when I was young, school was sort of okay but I found quite often that school got in the way of learning so I had this question in mind: how do you learn faster? And this began when I was very, very young. When I was about eleven years old I wrote a letter to researchers in the Soviet Union, asking about hypnopaedia, this is sleep learning, where you get a tape recorder, you put it beside your bed and it turns on in the middle of the night when you're sleeping, and you're supposed to be learning from this.
我小时候上学还凑合，但我常常发现上学会阻碍学习，因此在我心里面有了这样一个问题：怎样才能学得更快呢？（这个想法）在我很小时候已经开始了，大约我11 岁时，我给前苏联的研究者写了一封关于睡眠学习的信， 所谓“睡觉学习”，就是拿个磁带录音机放在你床边， 等你入眠后机器开始播放磁带，目的是通过这种方式来学习。
A good idea, unfortunately it doesn't work. But, hypnopaedia did open the doors to research in other areas and we've had incredible discoveries about learning that began with that first question.I went on from there to become passionate about psychology and I have been involved in psychology in many ways for the rest of my life up until this point.
In 1981 I took myself to China and I decided that I was going to be native level in Chinese inside two years.Now, you need to understand that in 1981, everybody thought Chinese was really, really difficult and that a westerner could study for ten years or more and never really get very good at it.And I also went in with a different idea which was: taking all of the conclusions from psychological research up to that point and applying them to the learning process.
1981年，我来到了中国, 并且决定在两年内我的汉语要达到像中文母语者一样的水平。你需要明白的是, 在 20 世纪 80 年代初，所有人都认为汉语是真的很难学，一个西方人可能学习10 年或以上也未必能学好。还有，我带着一种不同的想法，就是把心理学对这个问题研究所得的全部结论运用到我学习的过程当中。
What was really cool was that in six months I was fluent in Mandarin Chinese and took a little bit longer to get up to native. But I looked around and I saw all of these people from different countries struggling terribly with Chinese, I saw Chinese people struggling terribly to learn English and other languages, and so my question got refined down to: how can you help a normal adult learn a new language quickly, easily and effectively?
Now this is a really, really important question in today's world. We have massive challenges with environment. We have massive challenges with social dislocation, with wars, all sorts of things going on and if we can't communicate we're really going to have difficulty solving these problems.So we need to be able to speak each other's languages. This is really, really important.
The question then is how do you do that？ Well, it's actually really easy. You look around for people who can already do it, you look for situations where it's already working and then you identify the principles and apply them. It's called modeling and I've been looking at language learning and modeling language learning for about fifteen to twenty years now.
And my conclusion, my observation from this is that any adult can learn a second language to fluency inside six months.Now when I say this, most people think I'm crazy, this is not possible. So let me remind everybody of the history of human progress, it's all about expanding our limits.
In 1950 everybody believed that running one mile in four minutes was impossible and then Roger Bannister did it in 1956 and from there it's got shorter and shorter. 100 years ago everybody believed that heavy stuff doesn't fly。Except it does and we all know this. How does heavy stuff fly?We reorganize the materials using principles that we have learned from observing nature, birds in this case.
And today we've gone ever further, so you can fly a car. You can buy one of these for a couple hundred thousand US dollars. We now have cars in the world that can fly.And there's a different way to fly that we've learned from squirrels.
So all you need to do is copy what a flying squirrel does, build a suit called a wing suit and off you go, you can fly like a squirrel.
Now, most people, a lot of people, I wouldn't say everybody but a lot of people think they can't draw.However there are some key principles, five principles that you can apply to learning to draw and you can actually learn to draw in five days.So, if you draw like this, you learn these principles for five days and apply them and after five days you can draw something like this.
Now I know this is true because that was my first drawing and after five days of applying these principles that was what I was able to do. And I looked at this and I went ‘wow,' so that's how I look like when I'm concentrating so intensely that my brain is exploding.
So, anybody can learn to draw in five days and in the same way, with the same logic, anybody can learn a second language in six months.
因此，任何人都能够用 5 天时间学会画画，同样地，用同样的方式和逻辑，任何人都可以在 6 个月内学会一门外语。
How: there are five principles and seven actions.There may be a few more but these are absolutely core.And before I get into those I just want to talk about two myths, dispel two myths.
怎么做呢？有 5个原则和 7个行动可以参考。可能有更多，但这些绝对是核心部分。进入这些点之前我想先说说两个误区并消除它们。
The first is that you need talent.Let me tell you about Zoe. Zoe came from Australia, went to Holland, was trying to learn Dutch, struggling a great deal and finally people were saying: ‘you're completely useless,' ‘you're not talented,' ‘give up,' ‘you're a waste of time' and she was very, very depressed.And then she came across these five principles, she moved to Brazil and she applied them and within six months she was fluent in Portuguese, so talent doesn't matter.
误区一, 你需要有天赋。让我跟你们说说关于佐伊的事情。佐伊是澳大利亚人，她去到荷兰并尝试学习荷兰语。她非常挣扎，最后人们跟她说，“没用的，”“你没有天赋，”“还是放弃吧，”“你根本就是在浪费时间。”她对此感到非常沮丧。后来，她无意中发现了这 5 个原则，去了巴西，并把这些原则应用到她学习葡萄牙语中，6 个月内，她可以说流利的葡萄牙语了。因此，天赋不重要。
People also think that immersion in a new country is the way to learn a language. But look around Hong Kong, look at all the westerners who've been here for ten years, who don't speak a word of Chinese.Look at all the Chinese living in America, Britain, Australia, Canada who have been there ten, twenty years and they don't speak any English.
Immersion per se doesn't not work, why? Because a drowning man cannot learn to swim.
人们还认为学会一门外语最好的方式就是，到说该门语言的国家去。但是看看在香港已经呆了 10 年的西方人，还是一句中文也不会说。看看那些居住在美国、英国、澳大利亚、加拿大 10 年、20 年的中国人，还是不会一句英文。只呆在一个新的国家本身是没有用的。为什么？因为溺水的人是学不会游泳的。
When you don't speak a language you're like a baby and if you drop yourself into a context which is all adults talking about stuff over your head, you won't learn. So, what are the five principles that you need to pay attention to;
当你不能说那种语言，你就像一个婴儿，如果你进入一个环境，那里全部都是成年人在叽叽呱呱的说一些你完全听不明白的话，你还是学不会。那么你需要注意的那 5 个原则是什么呢？
First: there are four words, attention, meaning, relevance and memory, and these interconnect in very important ways. Especially when you're talking about learning.Come with me on a journey through a forest.You go on a walk through a forest and you see something like this.Little marks on a tree, maybe you pay attention, maybe you don't.
You go another fifty metres and you see this.You should be paying attention.Another fifty metres, if you haven't been paying attention, you see this.And at this point, you're paying attention. And you've just learned that this is important, it's relevant because it means this, and anything that is related, any information related to your survival is stuff that you're going to pay attention to and therefore you're going to remember it.
然后你继续向前走 50 米，你看到了这个。你应该要注意了。再 50 米，如果你还没注意的话，你会看到这个。当看到这个的时候，你就要注意了。你刚刚学习到了这个是重要的，它与你有重要关系，因为它代表这个。任何有关联的东西，任何有关你生存的信息都是值得你注意的，而你给注意力的就会记住的。
If it's related to your personal goals then you're going to pay attention to it, if it's relevant you're going to remember it. So, the first rule, the first principle for learning a language is focus on language content that is relevant to you.Which brings us to tools.We master tools by using tools and we learn tools the fastest when they are relevant to us. So let me share a story. A keyboard is a tool. Typing Chinese a certain way, there are methods for this.
That's a tool.I had a colleague many years ago who went to night school; Tuesday night, Thursday night, two hours each night, practicing at home, she spent nine months, and she did not learn to type Chinese.
键盘是一个工具。有不同方法打中文字。这些方法属于工具的一种。多年前，我有一位同事，她上夜校学习中文打字。每周二、周四晚上，她都用 2 个小时上课，然后也在家练习，她花了 9 个月的时间，仍然没学会打中文字。
And one night we had a crisis.We had forty eight hours to deliver a training manual in Chinese. And she got the job, and I can guarantee you in forty eight hours, she learned to type Chinese because it was relevant, it was important, it was meaningful, she was using a tool to create value.So the second tool for learning a language is to use your language as a tool to communicate right from day one. As a kid does.
一天晚上，我们有一件紧急的事情。我们有 48 个小时来准备用中文发表一本训练手册。她获得了这个任务 ，并且我可以像你保证，在 48 个小时内，她学会了用中文打字。因为这是相关的、重要的、有意义的，她在使用一种工具来创造价值。因此，学习一门语言的第二个工具是从第一天开始，用你的语言作为一种工具来沟通，像一个孩子那样做。
When I first arrived in China I didn't speak a word of Chinese, and on my second week I got to take a train ride overnight.I spent eight hours sitting in the dining car talking to one of the guards on the train. He took an interest in me for some reason, and we just chatted all night in Chinese and he was drawing pictures and making movements with his hands and facial expressions and piece by piece by piece I understood more and more.
当我初次来到中国，我一句中文都不会说。第二个星期我乘坐火车过夜。我花了 8 个小时，坐在餐车，跟一位乘警聊。因为某种原因，他对我很感兴趣。我们在那用中文聊了整夜，随着他画画、比划双手并动用他的面部表情，我逐渐地明白越来越多。
But what was really cool, was two weeks later, when people were talking Chinese around me, I was understanding some of this and I hadn't even made any effort to learn that. What had happened? I'd absorbed it that night on the train, which brings us to the third principle When you first understand the message, then you will acquire the language unconsciously.
And this is really, really well documented now, it's something called comprehensible input and there's twenty or thirty years of research on this. Stephen Krashen, a leader in the field has published all sorts of these different studies and this is just from one of them.
The purple bars show the scores on different tests for language. The purple people were people who had learned by grammar and formal study, the green ones are the ones who learned by comprehensible input. So, comprehension works.Comprehension is key and language learning is not about accumulating lots of knowledge. In many, many ways it's about physiological training.
A woman I know from Taiwan did great at English at school, she got A grades all the way through, went through college, A grades, went to the US and found she couldn't understand what people were saying. And people started asking her: ‘are you deaf?'
And she was. English deaf.
Because we have filters in our brain that filter in the sounds that we are familiar with and they filter out the sounds of languages we're not. And if you can't hear it, you won't understand it and if you can't understand it, you're not going to learn it.
So you actually have to be able to hear these sounds.And there are ways to do that but it's physiological training. Speaking takes muscle. You've got forty-three muscles in your face, you have to coordinate those in a way that you make sounds that other people will understand.
因此，你必须能够听到这些声音。这里有一些方法来做到，但这些是生理上的训练。说话需要用到肌肉。在你的脸上有 43 块肌肉，你必须协调好这些肌肉来发声，让别人明白你的话。
If you've ever done a new sport for a couple of days, then you know how your body feels. And it hurts. If your face is hurting you're doing it right.
And the final principle is state. Psycho-physiological state. If you're sad, angry, worried, upset, you're not going to learn. Period. If you're happy, relaxed, in an Alpha brain state, curious, you're going to learn really quickly, and very specifically you need to be tolerant of ambiguity. If you're one of those people who needs to understand 100% every word you're hearing, you will go nuts, because you'll be incredibly upset all the time, because you're not perfect.
If you're comfortable with getting some, not getting some, just paying attention to what you do understand, you're going to be fine, you'll be relaxed and you'll be learning quickly.
So based on those five principles, what are the seven actions that you need to take
那么在这 5 个原则上，你还需要哪 7 个行动呢？
Number one: listen a lot. I call it brain soaking。You put yourself in a context where you're hearing tons and tons and tons of a language and it doesn't matter if you understand it or not。 You're listening to the rhythm ,you're listening to the patterns that repeat, you're listening to things that stand out。 So, just soak your brain in this.
The second action: is that you get the meaning first, even before you get the words. You go “Well how do I do that?”， I don't know the words. Well, you understand what these different postures mean. Human communication is body language in many, many ways, so much body language.
From body language you can understand a lot of communication, therefore, you're understanding, you're acquiring through comprehensible input.And you can also use patterns that you already know. If you're a Chinese speaker of Mandarin and Cantonese and you go Vietnam, you will understand 60% of what they say to you in daily conversation, because Vietnamese is about 30% Mandarin, 30% Cantonese.
从身体语言，你可以理解很多对话内容，因此，你通过可明白输入理解、获取它的含义。你还可以利用你已经知道的模式。如果你是说国语和粤语，当你去到越南，你可以明白 60%的日常用语，因为越南话有 30%的国语和 30%的粤语。
The third action: start mixing. You probably have never thought of this but if you've got ten verbs, ten nouns and ten adjectives you can say one thousand different things. Language is a creative process. What do babies do? Okay: me, bat(h)， now， okay, that's how they communicate.So start mixing, get creative, have fun with it, it doesn't have to be perfect it just has to work.
And when you're doing this you focus on the core. What does that mean? Well any language has high frequency content. In English 1000 words covers 85% of anything you're ever going to say in daily communication. 3000 words give you 98% of anything you're going to say in daily conversation. You got 3000 words, you're speaking the language. The rest is icing on the cake.
And when you're just beginning with a new language start with the tool box. Week number one in your new language you say things like: ‘how do you say that?' ‘I don't understand,'
‘repeat that please,' ‘what does that mean,' all in your target language.
You're using it as a tool, making it useful to you, it's relevant to learn other things about the language. It's by week two that you should be saying things like: ‘me,' ‘this,' ‘you,' ‘that,' ‘give,' you know, ‘hot,' simple pronouns, simple nouns, simple verbs, simple adjectives, communicating like a baby.
And by the third or fourth week, you're getting into what I call glue words. ‘Although,' ‘but,' ‘therefore,' these are logical transformers that tie bits of a language together, allowing you to make more complex meaning。At that point you're talking。
然后第三或第四周，你会进入我称为“胶水词”的这部分。 “虽然”、“但是”、“因此”，这些逻辑工具帮助你把语言的小块紧密地结合在一起，让你制造更多复杂的意思。在那个阶段，你已经进入说话的阶段了！ 当你这样做的时候，你应该给自己找位语言家长。如果你看看孩子和父母之间的互动，你会明白这个什么意思的。
And when you're doing that, you should get yourself a language parent. If you look at how children and parents interact, you'll understand what this means. When a child is speaking, it'll be using simple words, simple combinations, sometimes quite strange, sometimes very strange pronunciation and other people from outside the family don't understand it. But the parents do.
And so the kid has a safe environment, gets confidence. The parents talk to the children with body language and with simple language which they know the child understands. So we have a comprehensible input environment that's safe, we know it works otherwise none of you would speak your mother tongue.So you get yourself a language parent, who's somebody interested in you as a person who will communicate with you essentially as an equal, but pay attention to help you understand the message.
There are four rules of a language parent. Spouses by the way are not very good at this, okay? But the four rules are, first of all, they will work hard to understand what you mean even when you're way off beat.
语言家长有四个规则。 顺便说一下，配偶在这里没有那么好，明白吗？ 那么 4 条规则是，第一，他们会尽可能地理解你的意思，哪怕你脱离节拍。
Secondly, they will never correct your mistakes. Thirdly they will feed back their understanding of what you are saying so you can respond appropriately and get that feedback and then they will use words that you know.
The sixth thing you have to do, is copy the face. You've got to get the muscles working right, so you can sound in a way that people will understand you. There's a couple of things you do.
第六件事你需要做的就是，模仿面部表情。 你需要把肌肉部位用得准确，别人才可以听明白你发出的声音。 达到此目的，你需要做几件事情。
One is that you hear how it feels, and feel how it sounds which means you have a feedback loop operating in your face, but ideally if you can look at a native speaker and just observe how they use their face, let your unconscious mind absorb the rules, then you're going to be able to pick it up. And if you can't get a native speaker to look at, you can use stuff like this: [slides].
And the final idea here, the final action you need to take is something that I call “direct connect.” What does this mean? Well most people learning a second language sort of take the mother tongue words and take the target words and go over them again and again in their mind to try and remember them. Really inefficient.
What you need to do is realize that everything you know is an image inside your mind, it's feelings, if you talk about fire you can smell the smoke you can hear the crackling, you can see the flames, so what you do, is you go into that imagery and all of that memory and you come out with another pathway.So I call it ‘same box, different path.
You come out of that pathway, you build it over time you become more and more skilled at just connecting the new sounds to those images that you already have, into that internal representation.And over time you even become naturally good at that process, that becomes unconscious.
So, there are five principles that you need to work with, seven actions, if you do any of them, you're going to improve。And remember these are things under your control as the learner. Do them all and you're going to be fluent in a second language in six months.Thank you.
因此，你需要运用的那 5 个原则和 7 个行动，如果你运用其中任何一个，都将得到进步。并且记住，作为学习者，这些事情都在你的掌控之下。如果你做到以上全部，你将会在六个月内学会流利的外语。谢谢。
1.阅读输入。好久前读冯唐的《活着活着就老了》，这家伙说他十来岁就看英文版的劳伦斯的小说了，当时很喜欢冯唐，就弄来了《Women in Love》硬是看了一半。中间觉得太累就换了笛福的《Robinson Crusoe》。最终两本看完了，我发现其实看个英文小说也没多难，后来就把劳伦斯和亨利米勒的拿出来看了。我真的很烦词汇量这个词，影响我学语言的良好的心态——不过，词汇量确实有很大提高。
2. 听力输入。学英语有个听力材料叫做《Effortless English》，是相当好的听力材料，里面讲了7条学习法则，可以运用到任何一门语言学习上，我只对其中一条关于语法的不赞同。里面提到的方法对听力和口语的帮助都很大。那几条规则我不转述了，因为描述不准确的话会误导人。大家自己去听一下，效果立竿见影，让你对语言学习方法有一个全新的认识。
3.可理解输入。书中对可理解输入有个 i+1 的概念，就是说想要进步，现在学习的内容应该要比自身水平难一点，也就是咱们说的循序渐进。有一种想法估计很多人都有过，是不是我生活在一个语言环境下就能很快习得语言。当然不是，举个简单的例子，有的姑娘看了那么多韩剧，估计会说的也就只有”오빠“/”어떡해“之类简单的东西，还没认真学两天掌握的多，为什么，因为除了这些特别明显的，其他的根本听不懂，听不出来。考托福的孩子也是，抱着SSS一个劲的听写，一分钟的内容能折腾两个小时，按照这种方法，三天就放弃真不是你毅力的问题，就算是应试也是讲科学的呀......好好去看看二语习得，别一股蛮劲往前冲。
5. 语法的问题：语法一定一定要学。《Effortless English》中强调不要学习语法，对于它这个教材来说，确实可以这么说。这个教材通过一种问问题和编故事的方法可以帮你解决大部分时态，动词变化，疑问呀假设什么的，好好跟着教材学，不仅口语提升不少，也可以很自然的，在不过多思考的情况下保证语法正确，闲聊是没问题。但是你学外语不仅仅是跑去闲聊的，很多著作，文献上面的句子可不像讲个故事那样简单，你不系统了解语法，会对某些句子十分费解的。一开始我也不了解语法的重要性，总觉得多读一读多写一些自然就会了。开始学习其他语言，当不再只盯着英语的时候，发现语法真是学习语言的捷径。